The periodontium comprises the tissues which exist adjacent to the teeth and these tissues also support the teeth by fixing them to the jaw bone. The periodontium comprises of four components. These components are:

  • Alveolar bone

  • Cementum

  • Gums or gingiva

  • Periodontal ligament

The alveolar process

The alveolar process or bone is a ridge of bone in which the teeth fit because this ridge of bone has specific sockets for every tooth. The maxilla and the mandible are the two components of the alveolar bone.


The cementum is the component of the periodontium and the tooth which covers the root of a tooth. It is yellow in color and has a lighter shade as compared to the dentin, which is another component of the tooth.


These are the tissues which cover the alveolar process. Commonly, gingiva are called gums. These are basically soft tissues which lie along the lining of the mouth. The gingiva surrounds the teeth and covers and protects the area where the teeth are connected with the alveolar process. The natural color of healthy gingiva is coral pink. Poor oral hygiene can not only lead to diseases and infections of the teeth, but also of the gingiva.

Periodontal ligament

The connective tissues which help a tooth to be fixed in the tooth sockets of the alveolar process are jointly called the periodontal ligament. It is the periodontal ligament which supports the teeth enabling them resist the force and pressure received during chewing and eating. The periodontal ligament performs various functions which are supportive, eruptive, homeostatic and sensory.

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The jaw is the bony structure which exists in the entrance of the mouth. This structure consists of segments which are held together by joints. The jaw is primarily used for manipulating food and grasping functions. The jaw comprises of the lower jaw bone, which is called the mandible, and the upper .... read more


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