Periodontium

Periodontium

The periodontium comprises the tissues which exist adjacent to the teeth and these tissues also support the teeth by fixing them to the jaw bone. The periodontium comprises of four components. These components are:

  • Alveolar bone

  • Cementum

  • Gums or gingiva

  • Periodontal ligament


The alveolar process

The alveolar process or bone is a ridge of bone in which the teeth fit because this ridge of bone has specific sockets for every tooth. The maxilla and the mandible are the two components of the alveolar bone.

Cementum

The cementum is the component of the periodontium and the tooth which covers the root of a tooth. It is yellow in color and has a lighter shade as compared to the dentin, which is another component of the tooth.

Gingiva

These are the tissues which cover the alveolar process. Commonly, gingiva are called gums. These are basically soft tissues which lie along the lining of the mouth. The gingiva surrounds the teeth and covers and protects the area where the teeth are connected with the alveolar process. The natural color of healthy gingiva is coral pink. Poor oral hygiene can not only lead to diseases and infections of the teeth, but also of the gingiva.

Periodontal ligament

The connective tissues which help a tooth to be fixed in the tooth sockets of the alveolar process are jointly called the periodontal ligament. It is the periodontal ligament which supports the teeth enabling them resist the force and pressure received during chewing and eating. The periodontal ligament performs various functions which are supportive, eruptive, homeostatic and sensory.

Related articles.

Displaying 1 to 5 of 18

Saliva gland

The salivary glands are the glands which produce saliva. Saliva is the water-like and frothy substance which is produced in the mouth. The saliva is 98% water, and the other 2% consists of other substances. The saliva supports in the digestion process and also prevents tooth decay by breaking down t .... read more

Jaw

The jaw is the bony structure which exists in the entrance of the mouth. This structure consists of segments which are held together by joints. The jaw is primarily used for manipulating food and grasping functions. The jaw comprises of the lower jaw bone, which is called the mandible, and the upper .... read more

Tongue

The tongue is a muscular structure in the oral cavity which has many functions such as supporting in the chewing of food, helping to make sounds and speaking, etc, this function is called phonetic articulation. The tongue is the chief organ of taste because it contains taste buds. The tongue remains .... read more

Palate

The palate, which is most commonly known as the roof of the mouth, is the structure which separates the oral cavity and the nasal cavity. This is the upper wall of the oral cavity. Palates are of two types, the hard palate and the soft palate. The hard palate exists in the anterior position, while t .... read more

Permanent molars

There are twelve molars in the mouth.  The molars are the most intricate kind of teeth and these exist at the rear of  the mouth. These teeth are effectively used for grinding the food prior to swallowing. The molars exist in sets of three teeth on each quadrate, this means three molars on the right .... read more


Oral Health by Regions

     

Oral Health Knowledge Base

     

Glossary