Glossary A-Z


Ultrasound is a noise which has such a high frequency that the upper limit of human hearing is crossed and humans can not hear it. Ultrasound is used for diverse medical applications, but the most common and well known application of ultrasound is to produce images of fetuses in the human womb.

Veneer (dentistry)

Veneer is a type of restorative material which is used to protect a damaged tooth surface or to enhance the aesthetics of the tooth. Veneer can be made up of two materials; dental porcelain and composite. The methods of placing the veneer in the mouth can be direct as well as indirect. The direct placing of the veneer in the mouth means that the veneer is built-up in the mouth, whereas the indirect placing means that the veneer would be first produced by a technician in a dental laboratory, and then it is fixed in the mouth of the patient later. A composite veneer can be placed directly or indirectly, however, the porcelain veneer can only be placed indirectly.

Vincents infection

The Vincents infection is an infection of the gum tissue which can be extremely painful. This infection characterizes ulceration, sloughing off of dead tissue from the mouth and throat and swelling. Vincents infection is also known as acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis or necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. This infection only involves the gums, and does not affect the complete periodontium. If the Vincents infection is not treated properly within due time, then it may worsen and may involve and affect the periodontium as well; this condition is known as necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis.


Virulence is the degree and extent of pathogenicity of particular viruses or microorganisms. The virulence of particular viruses or microorganisms can be determined by two factors; the case fatality rates and the capability of the virus or microorganism in invading the tissues of the patient. It can also be said that virulence is the capability of a virus or pathogen to cause disease. Pathogens can cause diseases by diverse methods; these methods are adhesion, colonization, invasion, immune response inhibitors and toxins.


Virus is a kind of pathogen which has the potential to reproduce within the living cells of organisms. Viruses can infect all types of life forms; this includes humans, animals, plants and even bacteria and archaea. Viruses exist in millions of types. Virology is the study of viruses, which falls under the specialty of microbiology.

There are numerous ways in which viruses can be spread and transmitted. These spread among plants usually by insects, and spread from one animal to another through blood-sucking insects. Viruses which cause influenza spread and transmit by coughing and sneezing. Some types of viruses transmit by the faecal-oral route. Another type of virus, the HIV is transmitted by sexual contact and/or exposure to infected blood. Common human diseases which are caused by viruses include influenza, common cold, cold sores and chickenpox. Other severe diseases which can be caused by viruses include AIDS, SARS, avian influenza and ebola.

Wisdom tooth

There are four third molars in the mouth of humans; these third molars are also known as wisdom teeth. These teeth are called wisdom teeth because these teeth usually erupt between the ages of sixteen years and twenty five years. The extraction of a wisdom tooth is quite common because these teeth often become impacted as they develop. Some people do not even have wisdom teeth developed at all in their mouth.

A wisdom tooth is known to be impacted when an adjacent tooth obstructs the growth of it and due to this, it starts growing in the wrong direction, and eventually not erupting properly. This is the most common cause of the extraction of wisdom tooth. Moreover, when a wisdom tooth is assessed with the potential to cause problems in the future if not extracted, then it would be extracted as well.


X-rays are forms of electromagnetic radiations. The images of the human body or the parts of the body for medical and clinical purposes can be obtained by x-rays. The clinical and medical purposes for which x-rays are obtained include the diagnosis and examination of disease. X-ray can effectively detect the pathology of the skeletal system and soft tissues as well. The x-ray of the chest, for example, can be extremely supportive for the diagnosis of diseases like lung cancer, pneumonia, pulmonary edema, etc. In the same way, the x-ray images of different parts of the body can be obtained for diagnosis and examination purposes.

X-ray images are also very frequently obtained during dental treatment processes. X-rays have the potential to identify and detect many dental and oral diseases and conditions, like dental cavities, etc.

X-ray (dental)

Dental x-rays are also known as dental radiographs. These are the images of the teeth and the surrounding bones. After the photographic film is exposed to the x-ray radiations, the image has to be developed. With the introduction of digital x-rays, the process has become less time consuming and more convenient. Dental x-ray is a critical part of dental examination and check-up because it effectively identifies and detects the diseases and conditions which the dentist is unable to identify without the x-ray. Dental experts are sometimes unable to detect tooth decay and periodontal disease by normal examination and check-up; however, by obtaining x-ray images, these diseases can be identified successfully.

Zygomatic bone

The zygomatic bone is a bone of the human skull. The zygomatic bone connects with the temporal bone, the maxilla, the frontal bone and the sphenoid bone. The zygomatic bone exists in the upper and lateral part of the face. The prominence of the cheek is also formed by the zygomatic bone.

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