Extractions of erupted, buried, or impacted teeth
Sometimes, the extraction of a tooth cannot be done by the simple extraction method using forceps. Teeth which are not easily visible in the mouth are extracted with more complications. These teeth include those which might have broken off at the gum line, or those teeth which have not even come up as far. In order to view the teeth and execute the process of extraction, the gums should be cut. The dental surgeon cuts the gums and pulls away the gum flap, giving access to the tooth, so that it may be extracted.
Local anesthesia is used in surgical extractions, and conscious sedation is also possible. General anesthesia may also be given if there are certain special health conditions with the patient, or if the patient is a child. The gums are incised in the surgical extraction and in some cases, even the tooth may be cut into pieces for easier extraction.
The size, shape and positioning of the tooth to be extracted also plays a vital role in determining whether a surgical extraction is required or not. If the shape of the tooth is hooked, curved or crooked, or if the tooth is widely divergent, then surgical extraction is the only technique used to remove the tooth. The dentist applies a process called tooth sectioning. With this process the tooth is divided into several sections or parts, and then each section or part is removed separately, making the extraction easier. Sometimes, the bone surrounding the tooth needs to be removed before the tooth is extracted.