A tooth is made up of four tissues; one of these tissues is the tooth enamel. This is a very hard tissue and why it completely protects the inner tissues of the teeth. The other three tissues which make a tooth are dentin, cementum and dental pulp. The tooth enamel is the outer surface of a tooth which is visible to others and which covers the anatomical crown.

The natural color of the enamel is grayish white or yellow and it is semi-translucent, which means that the color of the material inside the enamel also plays a role in giving the enamel and the tooth a color. The enamel of the deciduous teeth appear to be whiter than the permanent teeth, this is because the enamel of deciduous teeth contain more opaque crystalline form.

The enamel is extremely mineralized, and hydroxylapatite is the mineral which primarily formulates the enamel. The minerals of the enamel make the enamel strong as well as brittle. One difference between the enamel and other hard tissue is that other hard tissues contain collagen, which is a group of proteins, but the enamel does not. Another difference is the inclusion of amelogenins and enamelins, these are two classes of proteins found in enamel.

The enamel is vulnerable to a demineralization process and hence tooth decay is possible if the oral hygiene of the mouth is not maintained. Regular brushing and flossing the teeth is required to keep the teeth clean and to get rid of the bacteria. Occasionally, every person should also visit the dentist to get the plaque removed from the teeth professionally.