Bone grafting is a surgical procedure. It places new bone or a replacement material into the spaces between or around broken bone (fractures), or holes in bone (defects), to aid healing. There are lots of things that affect the bone volume. Among these are periodontal disease or trauma and infections. Also, it is not unusual to open up a site in the mouth for implant placement and find out that some of the critical supporting bone is missing. The specialist will only do a bone grafting if the quality and quantity of the bone in your jaw is not enough to continue with a dental implant.
There are few methods of bone grafting
Osteogenesis – the cells in the graft form a new bone
Osteoinduction – acceleration of new bone formation by chemical
Osteoconduction – provision of a scaffold for the growth of new bone
Autografts – to graft specific area, bone from one area of the patient’s body is transplanted to another.
Bone harvest from the hip or mouth of the patient will be grafted onto the patient’s jawbone. Since compatibility of the jaw and the harvested bone is high, this makes this technique most successful. So far, it is the best grafting technique.
Allografts are taken from the bone bank. Such bone goes through various sterilization processes to ensure that it is safe as a graft. Then, the donor bone will eventually convert to a natural bone whilst building the jaw bone.
Xenografts are harvested from animals. It acts as a “filler” which in time your body will replace with natural bone. After this replacement process is complete, dental implants will support the teeth.
Alloplastic grafts insert synthetic materials made by man. Most often inserted is a form of calcium phosphate. It may be “resorbable” or “non-resorbable”.
Tips for after bone grafting procedure
After a bone grafting procedure patients will feel swelling. It usually lasts for 24-48 hours after the surgery. The oral surgeon may suggest pain relief medications, to minimise the pain. During that time, do not use a straw, drink from a glass. The sucking motion can cause more bleeding by dislodging the blood clot. You may eat anything soft by chewing away from the surgical site. Drink at least 5-6 glasses of water per day.
Today, we have the ability to grow bone where needed and to restore functionality and aesthetic appearance. After bone grafting surgery, the person should stay in bed for at least a day and limit physical activity for one week.
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